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The Big Read in short: Bridging the Singaporean-foreigner divide

SINGAPORE — When Ms Fiona Jia first visited Singapore in 2017, she was at first puzzled to find a mobile phone left unattended on the table at a cafe.

Based on a recent poll by NYC, only 17 per cent of Singaporean youth feel that locals and foreigners get along well here despite their differences, compared to 38 per cent of foreigners.

Based on a recent poll by NYC, only 17 per cent of Singaporean youth feel that locals and foreigners get along well here despite their differences, compared to 38 per cent of foreigners.

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This article was written in partnership with the National Youth Council. Join us in our Instagram Live webinar on 12pm, Wednesday (May 4) on the topic of bridging the Singaporean-foreigner divide.

Each week, TODAY’s long-running Big Read series delves into the trends and issues that matter. This week, we examine the divide between Singaporeans and foreigners and what can be done to bridge the gap. This is a shortened version of the full feature,​ which can be found here.

  • Around the world, tensions between foreigners and citizens always bubble to the surface amid major crises
  • It was no different in Singapore during the Covid-19 pandemic, with the Singaporean-foreigner divide coming to the fore — be it in the economic or social sphere 
  • Such a divide often stems from a lack of integration among Singaporeans and foreigners in everyday life
  • Some expats admit to keeping to their own circles due to a variety of reasons, especially during the pandemic given the community restrictions. On their part, some Singaporeans also say they do not proactively reach out to foreign colleagues or acquaintances 
  • Without building bridges, fault lines will deepen and experts pointed out the need for society to continuously work on integration, which is a two-way street  

SINGAPORE — When Ms Fiona Jia first visited Singapore in 2017, she was at first puzzled to find a mobile phone left unattended on the table at a cafe.

The Chinese national later learnt from her friend that this was a patron’s way of reserving a table. 

“My friend told me that people here ‘chope’ with their bank card, keys and other valuables.

“I was shocked. It’s never something I would ever think of doing in any other country,” said the 34-year-old, who moved to Singapore a year later, in 2018.

Today, Ms Jia, who works in an e-commerce company, has come to embrace the Singaporean quirk of “chope-ing”, or reserving a seat with a personal item like a tissue packet.

Ms Fiona Jia, 34, who moved to Singapore in 2018, said that outside of work, her social circles remain limited to mainly fellow expatriates.

Another foreigner, Mr Goutham Devulapally, has his colleagues to thank for introducing him to the hawker centres here.

“I’d never seen a foodcourt like that in India, where it’s all individual restaurants… My colleagues helped me adjust to the hawker culture and taught me about nasi lemak and chicken rice,” said the 39-year-old Indian national who has been in Singapore for six years and works in a medical devices company.

Despite having learnt the quirks and way of life in Singapore, both Ms Jia and Mr Goutham said that outside of work, their social circles remain limited to mainly fellow expatriates.

On their part, Singaporeans told TODAY that while they are quick to help their foreign co-workers adjust to the Singaporean way of life, not all of the locals are able to form deeper relations beyond the professional setting.

Singaporean Gouthaman Haridass, a 33-year-old consultant in the fintech industry, said that he has invited his foreign colleagues over to his home to celebrate local festivals or tell them about places in Singapore beyond the usual expatriate haunts like Bugis, Orchard or Holland Village. 

On the other hand, Ms Nur, a 28-year-old who works as a manager in the banking industry and declined to give her full name, does not feel the need to proactively educate her foreign colleagues on local culture as most leave their jobs in a few years, and conversations on local culture may not be of relevance or interest to them.

Indeed, even as Singaporeans and foreigners live and work alongside each other, both groups have found it difficult to break out of their existing social circles and build deeper relationships with people from the other side.

Based on a recent poll by the National Youth Council (NYC), only 17 per cent of Singaporean youth feel that locals and foreigners get along well here despite their differences, compared to 38 per cent of foreigners.

Both Singaporean and non-Singaporean youths recognise the existence of local-foreigner conflicts in Singapore, though more than half of the Singaporean youths acknowledge that the conflicts are not as pressing as other issues facing the nation.

The NYC Youth Local-Foreigner Relations Sentiment Poll surveyed 700 Singaporean citizens and non-citizens — comprising a mix of foreigners and permanent residents — between the ages of 16 and 34 for their views on relations between locals and foreigners here. It was conducted from April 6 to 11.

Separately, views from foreigners and Singaporeans whom TODAY spoke also reflected some degree of an “us versus them” mentality which has been exacerbated by the economic upheaval brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic in the past two years. 

With relations between Singaporeans and foreigners perpetually a work in progress, in a country that has little choice but to embrace globalisation, TODAY examines the main issues underpinning the divide and what it would take to bridge the gap — including making the first step. 

MAKING THE FIRST STEP ON A TWO-WAY STREET 

The NYC poll found that while two in five Singaporean youth feel that foreigners are able to integrate into local culture comfortably, a slightly higher proportion of half think that foreigners tend to stick to their own social circles.

Foreigners in the professionals, managers, executives and technicians (PMET) category whom TODAY spoke to also acknowledged that their social circles comprise predominantly other expatriates.

Although they are keen to get to know more Singaporeans, the foreign PMETs cited limited opportunities, existing networks and “reserved Singaporeans” as among the reasons they are unable to do so.

There is a general reticence among some Singaporeans to proactively build bonds with foreigners in their midst.

Ms Jia, for instance, said that her friends are mainly expatriates from the United States or Europe as she got to know them through her American husband who is also working in Singapore.

And while she is open to making Singaporean friends, Ms Jia said that foreigners tend to seek each other out as there is a sense that they should “get close and help each other out” in a new country.

Mr Goutham, the Indian national and Employment Pass (EP) holder, said that his relationship with his colleagues does not extend beyond work. 

He attributed this to Singapore being a “reserved society”, where Singaporeans do not like to get too personal during their interactions.

Other foreigners said that since the pandemic started, the slew of Covid-19 curbs have also reduced their opportunity to meet and mingle with Singaporeans through activities such as sports.

In response to TODAY's queries, the National Integration Council (NIC) said that due to Covid-19, its partners have had to adapt many of their programmes and initiatives to online formats where possible. As a result, opportunities were limited for organic and informal interactions between participants.

Nonetheless, many of NIC's partners have used this time to adapt and improve programmes to make them more meaningful and impactful for participants despite the challenges faced.  

The council was set up in 2009 to encourage ground-up integration efforts between Singaporeans and newcomers such as permanent residents, naturalised citizens and expats. 

Associate Professor Laavanya Kathiravelu, a sociologist from the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), said that structural barriers in society make it difficult for foreigners to form networks and connections with Singaporeans through everyday interactions.

For example, foreigners who are not permanent residents or naturalised citizens cannot buy public housing and do not work in the Civil Service, which has a predominantly Singaporean workforce, thus limiting their interactions with locals to some extent.

As such, foreigners require extra effort to break out of their expatriate circles and join local community groups or civil society organisations or reach out to Singaporean colleagues, she added.

Most of them are really just here to do their job and leave after a few years. Having that kind of conversation with them is not relevant... So I only share when they ask out of curiosity.
Ms Nur, a 28-year-old Singaporean, on why she doesn’t usually strike up meaningful conversations with her foreign colleagues

Compounding the situation is a general reticence among some Singaporeans to proactively build bonds with foreigners in their midst. 

On why she does not usually make the first step to strike up meaningful conversations with her foreign colleagues, Ms Nur, the 28-year-old who works in a bank, said: "I think it’s because a lot of them are not here for the long haul. Most of them are really just here to do their job and leave after a few years. Having that kind of conversation with them is not relevant... So I only share when they ask out of curiosity."

THE COMPETITION FOR RESOURCES

A perennial concern among Singaporeans when it comes to the presence of foreigners on the island is the anxiety over the increased competition — be it in workplaces, schools or the larger community. 

The NYC poll found that half of the Singaporean youth surveyed are concerned over competition with foreigners for career or educational opportunities, with two in five indicating that they have personally experienced or witnessed someone they know lose an opportunity to foreigners.

And while half of the Singaporean youths also recognise that foreigners help to fill workforce gaps and make Singapore more economically competitive, 37 per cent of this group feel that there are too many foreigners in leadership positions in the private sector.

Singaporeans interviewed by TODAY had mixed views about the question of whether foreigners are “stealing” jobs.

A 30-year-old fintech professional, who wanted to be known only as Mr Sim, said that his industry lacks Singaporeans with the relevant skills and that working alongside foreigners has been beneficial for his professional growth.

However, Ms Nur felt that foreigners in her company have been given roles that Singaporeans are qualified for. Still, she acknowledged that it could be because foreigners are more willing to ask for these opportunities compared with more introverted Singaporeans.

Some Singaporeans interviewed also felt that their foreign counterparts are sometimes hungrier and more competitive at work. 

On this, Mr Goutham, the Indian national, said: “There’s a perception that as a foreigner, you need to perform well. Otherwise, you might lose your job and be thrown out of Singapore. That very feeling makes you work a little harder because you need to keep the job."

Mr Goutham Devulapally, an Indian national who has been in Singapore for six years.

IMPACT ON S’POREAN IDENTITY, SOCIAL NORMS

On the social front, some segments of society also worry that the influx of foreigners could change the Singaporean identity, norms and way of life as they know it.

A 2018 study by the Institute of Policy Studies found that more than six in 10 of the 4,000 Singaporeans and permanent residents surveyed feel that immigrants are not doing enough to integrate into Singapore.

However, integration can be easier said than done. 

Speaking to TODAY, both foreigners and naturalised citizens said that it takes time for them to adapt and adjust to local norms — from language and everyday behaviour to Singapore’s orderly nature.

For Mr James Ye, a naturalised citizen originally from China, picking up the English language was a challenge when he arrived here in 2006 as a university student.

The 34-year-old real estate agent also had to grapple with Singlish, but was able to pick it up in two years after interacting with Singaporean friends and watching local movies such as Ah Boys To Men. 

If assimilation doesn’t come easy for them, developing a sense of belonging and an emotional bond with Singapore is even harder for some.

Both foreigners and naturalised citizens said that it takes time for them to adapt and adjust to local norms.

A change in the colour of their passports did not automatically translate to a feeling of citizenship overnight, said some naturalised citizens.

You cannot wake up the next day and become a Singaporean although on a document you are… It takes time to be a part of a country’s culture and heritage and society.
Mr Nitin Kakaria, 43, who hails from India and became a Singaporean citizen last year

Mr Nitin Kakaria, 43, who hails from India, became a Singaporean citizen last year. He said that since he first moved to Singapore for work in 2007, he has come to appreciate the country and see it as his long-term home.

Apart from Singapore’s hawker culture, Mr Nitin, who is in-between jobs, cited the efficiency of the public transport system and the Government’s dedication to ensure affordable housing for Singaporeans as some reasons for his choice to be a citizen.

But while Mr Nitin, who previously worked in the banking industry, now sees the island as his home, it will take him a few years to “fully integrate and consider (himself) a pure Singaporean”.

“You cannot wake up the next day and become a Singaporean although on a document you are… It takes time to be a part of a country’s culture and heritage and society. That will only happen when you participate in electoral process and cultural process as a citizen,” he said. 

ISSUE OF SPACE 

While the situation has improved after substantial investments by the Government to improve the country's infrastructure, concerns among Singaporeans over congestion and overcrowding came to the fore not too long ago. 

The Government has since taken concrete steps to ease the load on public infrastructure, such as increasing the frequency of trains, the perception that foreigners are to be blamed for packed trains and buses lingers in some segments of society.

In fact, tensions between Singaporeans and foreigners tend to play out in crowded and congested areas, said Dr Leong Chan-Hoong, an NIC member who is also the head of policy development, evaluation and data analytics at consultancy Kantar Public. Singaporeans interviewed said that while crowded trains and food courts in the Central Business District bother them, they do not blame foreigners for the squeeze, even if they may do so out of frustration at first.

The perception that foreigners are to be blamed for packed trains and buses lingers in some segments of society.

Ms Lydia Ng, a 40-year-old owner of a digital consultancy, said that she has blamed foreigners out of frustration when boarding overcrowded trains.

This is despite knowing that crowded trains are not the fault of foreigners but an issue related to urban planning.

“Your mind tells you one thing… but you still get annoyed because there is no breathing room, and you find something else (foreigners) to blame,” said Ms Ng.

NO PLAYGROUND FOR THE RICH

Job competition aside, there is also a perception among some Singaporeans that their country has become a playground for rich foreigners. 

Experts said that stereotypes of foreigners being well-heeled are reinforced by the presence of Western or European expatriates who are over-represented in highly skilled and well-paid professions. They also tend to be featured in high society magazines or in the media.

National University of Singapore sociologist Tan Ern Ser said that there may be a perception of the threat posed by foreigners to locals’ jobs, mixed with envy and a sense that some foreigners do not deserve the high life which they can afford in Singapore.

Such a mixture could create the politics of envy among Singaporeans, he added.

Mr Gouthaman, the Singaporean working in fintech, said that it is natural for Singaporeans to feel jealous when they see foreigners in better or more desirable jobs. Nevertheless, he acknowledged that their presence is necessary to attract foreign investment and generate jobs for Singaporeans.

Through his personal interactions, he found that while some foreigner colleagues hold high-end jobs, live in luxury properties and lead lives that are different from the average Singaporean, they have continued to make an effort to understand the cultures of others.

Addressing worries that foreigners could drive up property prices here, property analyst Christine Sun of real estate agency OrangeTee and Tie, said that the average Singaporean need not be concerned as the numbers of foreign buyers are not large. 

Debunking the misperception that all foreigners in Singapore are living in riches, Mr Goutham, the Indian national, noted that Singapore is expensive to live in and many foreigners like himself “spend a bomb” to live here.

Mr Goutham, who lives in a rented Housing and Development Board flat with his family, said: “It takes a lot of a lot of effort to take up a job and survive here. If only one parent is working and you have two kids, it’s not easy to survive and make ends meet in Singapore."

Just as we have seen newcomers who actively contribute to Singapore, we also hope more locals can help to create an understanding and inclusive community for newcomers.
Dr Leong Chan-Hoong, a member of the National Integration Council

BRIDGING THE GAP

With such flashpoints and different viewpoints between Singaporeans and foreigners, shall the twain ever meet? 

To promote integration, building shared experiences between Singaporeans and foreigners is needed, Dr Leong said.

These have to go beyond programmes such as organised events at community clubs and instead focus on mundane day-to-day experiences that bring all residents together. 

Singaporeans can also acknowledge that foreigners play an important part in not just the country's economy but also in adding to its social and cultural diversity, said Assoc Prof Laavanya.

Dr Leong added: “Just as we have seen newcomers who actively contribute to Singapore, we also hope more locals can help to create an understanding and inclusive community for newcomers to learn and integrate into Singapore’s culture and norms." 

Have an idea to bridge the Singaporean-foreigner divide? Through the Young ChangeMakers grant, you can meet, connect and collaborate with like-minded youth by organising community projects or championing ground-up initiatives. Develop your ideas with mentorship from youth leaders and seed funding to grow and implement solutions that help the community. Visit here for more details. 

Related topics

foreigners Local Singaporean foreign workers Jobs

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