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10 things to know about changes to the PSLE scoring system

Changes to the Primary School Leaving Examination scoring system will kick in from 2021. Here is the FAQ from the Ministry of Education to explain the changes and the reasoning behind them.

New Primary One students at St Hilda's Primary School participating in class on the first day of school. TODAY file photo

New Primary One students at St Hilda's Primary School participating in class on the first day of school. TODAY file photo

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Changes to the Primary School Leaving Examination scoring system will kick in from 2021. Here is the FAQ from the Ministry of Education to explain the changes and the reasoning behind them.

1) What is the point of making these changes to the PSLE?

To equip our children to thrive in the future, we are making shifts to help our students discover their talents and interest and to nurture well-rounded individuals.

The PSLE changes are another step in this larger direction. We are moving away from an over-emphasis on academic results by:

Reducing fine differentiation

* The current T-score system differentiates students very finely. However a student who has a T-score Aggregate of 231 and a student who scores 230 could be equally ready for secondary school, and it may not be educationally meaningful to differentiate so finely between the two at this age.

* Under the new system, each subject will be graded using Achievement Levels (ALs) which span a range of marks, so students who perform similarly will obtain the same AL.

* A student’s PSLE Score will be the sum of the ALs of the four subjects, and this will replace the T-score Aggregate. There will only be 29 possible PSLE scores, down from around 200 T-score Aggregates today. This means that students will be less finely differentiated under the new system.

Reflecting a student’s own level of achievement, instead of comparing him to his peers

* The T-score shows how a student has performed relative to his peers. A student may do well in a subject, but if most of his peers perform better than him, he will get a lower T-score.

* In the new system, a student will be graded based on his own performance, regardless of how his peers have performed.

*  Standards will remain the same year to year. A child who gets AL5 in 2021 and a child who gets AL5 in 2022 will have demonstrated similar levels of achievement.

* This allows students to focus on their own learning instead of trying to outdo others.

2) How will these PSLE scoring changes reduce stress among students?

Help children focus on learning instead of marks

* To encourage students to focus on their own learning, the new scoring system will show the child how well he has learnt, not how he has done in comparison to his peers.

* By moving to ALs, students are not so finely differentiated on the basis of every mark. Students who demonstrate similar achievement in a subject will receive the same AL. Likewise, schools with similar academic profiles will be less differentiated by cut-off points, so students can choose from a wider range of schools and pick those that are a good educational fit for them.* The changes above should help reduce excessive competition and anxiety among students.

* Parents often think that only a specific school can help their child do well, and this can cause excessive stress. With our increasingly diverse secondary school landscape, no matter what the child’s PSLE Score and interests are, there will be a variety of good schools to choose from.

* Collectively, parents, teachers and society need to help our children find the right balance between doing their best academically and pursuing other interests, which will help develop them into more well-rounded individuals.

3) Why are there 8 ALs?

This provides a good balance

* The 8 ALs are designed to reflect broadly different levels of achievement. While it is not meaningful to differentiate too finely between students, we need a broad indication of their progress after 6 years of primary school, so that they can be matched to suitable academic programmes in secondary school.

* For example, while there may not be any difference between a student who scores 65 and another who scores 66 marks in a subject, there is a difference between one who scores 65 and another who scores 75. We want to be able to recognise this difference.

* If there are too few ALs, there would be more students with the same PSLE Score, which would lead to more balloting in S1 posting. This would cause more anxiety for parents and students.

* 8 ALs offer a good balance.

4) Why are the reference raw mark ranges not evenly distributed?

They provide meaningful differentiation

* The reference raw mark ranges for the ALs are set based on the curriculum’s learning objectives.

* They provide educationally meaningful differentiation of students to enable schools to better guide the students’ secondary school journey.

* The upper ranges are narrower because the PSLE is designed such that students are able to show what they can do and a large majority of students do well for the PSLE. On average, about half of the students will score AL4 or better.

* At the middle to lower ALs, wider raw mark ranges are sufficient to give a good indication of a student’s progress and further differentiation is less educationally meaningful.

5) Are the 8 ALs derived from the current letter grades?

This is a new scoring system

• The new ALs are not related to the current letter grades.

• Each AL reflects how well the student has performed in a subject.

• The academic expectations for each AL are set based on the curriculum’s learning objectives.

6) Doesn’t choice already matter in S1 posting today?

Choice will matter more

* Today, S1 posting does take into account a student’s choice order of schools, as each student will be posted to his most preferred school for which he is eligible. However, for students with the same T-score Aggregate, the order in which they place a given school does not give them priority in admission to that school.

* Going forward, with choice order being a new tie-breaker, this will change. Between two students with the same PSLE Score, the student who has placed a given school higher up in his list of choices will have priority in admission to that school. However, academic merit remains the main factor in posting students.

7) How should we choose secondary schools under the new system?

Look at different aspects of the school and its overall fit for your child

Discuss the options with your child.

* Take some time to reflect on your child’s personality, learning style, strengths and interests.

* Look beyond the cut-off points of the schools. Consider a school’s ethos, culture, programmes and CCAs, as well as its distance from your home.

* Secondary schools also hold open houses where you and your child can learn more about the school’s programmes, and speak with teachers and students.

* To help parents choose schools in the first year under the new system, we will provide parents and students with information about the profile of each school, including its learning environment, unique programmes and CCAs. Parents can refer to the S1 Posting booklet given to students in Primary 6, the online School Information Service, school websites or visit the schools at their open houses.

* We will also provide simulated cut-off points for secondary schools based on the previous year’s S1 Posting exercise. However, the actual cut-off points may differ, depending on how students perform in the actual year.

8) Will there be more balloting under the new system?

* Under the current system, computerised balloting is used as a tie-breaker when two or more Singapore citizens who have the same score are vying for the last place in a school. There is only a small amount of balloting conducted.

* With wider scoring bands, more students will attain the same PSLE Score. There could be more balloting if many students choose the same school. However, MOE anticipates that balloting will only affect a small proportion of students, as it would only take place after all earlier tie-breakers have been used up. Based on past cohorts’ performances and choice patterns, about 9 in 10 students would not have to undergo balloting. This balloting figure will change depending on the actual choice patterns of students.

9) Why are the changes being implemented in 2021? Why not earlier?

The PSLE changes are significant, so we will not rush the implementation

* The next few years will be used to:

- Test the new exam scoring and posting systems thoroughly;
- Engage parents and other stakeholders on the changes to help them better understand how the new system works; and
- Give schools time to familiarise themselves with the new PSLE scoring system and provide support to parents and students.
- Develop and mature distinctive programmes in secondary schools, so that students can choose those that complement their diverse learning needs, interests and strengths.

10) Will the PSLE curriculum change?

The PSLE scoring and Sec 1 posting changes will not affect:

• The curriculum
• The subjects tested at the PSLE
• The demand of the PSLE on students

However, MOE does review the curriculum regularly to ensure that our curriculum is relevant and up-to-date. This will continue as per current practice.



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